The five essential conditions for protein formation

In order for a single protein to form, five separate conditions that demolish the very foundations of Darwinists’ theories need to be met simultaneously:

1st condition:

There are more than 200 amino acids in nature. Only 20 specific amino acids need to be selected in order for proteins to form. If any other amino acid apart from these 20 enters the equation, no protein will result.

2nd condition:
Following the selection of these special 20 amino acids, it is essential they be set out in a specific sequence.  Even if all the conditions are completely fulfilled, just a single amino acid being in the wrong sequence will prevent protein forming.

3rd condition:

The amino acids constituting protein all have to be left-handed. 

•    Although right- and left-handed amino acids have all the same characteristics, they are mirror images of one anther, like right- and left-handed gloves.  

•    There is not a single right-handed amino acid in living structures.

•    If just one right-handed amino acid enters the equation, that protein will be incapable of being used.

•    The probability of a small protein being formed from left-handed amino acids alone is 1 in 10210.

The well-known chemist Walter T. Brown makes this statement on the subject:

… the amino acids that comprise the proteins found in living things, including plants, animals, bacteria, molds, and even viruses, are essentially all left-handed. No known natural process can isolate either the left- or the right-handed variety. The mathematical probability that chance processes could produce just one tiny protein molecule with only left-handed amino acids is virtually zero.1

4th condition:

Amino acids are bound by "peptide bonds" alone.

-    As scientists discovered amino acids, they established that the amino acids constituting proteins were connected in a very interesting, different way to that observed in nature. That bond is a special chemical one known as the  peptide bond.

-    The atoms in molecules are generally connected together by covalent bonds, Only amino acids are bound together by special peptide bonds.

-    Peptide bonds can only be dissolved at high temperature, or prolonged exposure to powerful acids or alkalis. It is these peptide bonds that make proteins very strong and resistant.

5th condition:

•    The amino acid sequence that needs to take place in order for a protein to form has to be linear.

•    In other words, the amino acid chain that takes place must not be a structure that branches out and develops lateral chains, but has to have a straight structure with amino acids following on one from the other.

•    Sydney Fox conducted an experiment using amino acids to try to produce protein. He heated dry amino acid compounds in an atmosphere of nitrogen at 160-180 degrees for several hours.

•    Amino acids bound to one another, but not in a linear manner. They were not connected by peptide bonds and branched out rather than being linear.  

•    Fox called these proteinoids, though they were in reality nothing more that irregular strings with nothing to do with proteins or life.  

•    These sequences made the existing amino acids used in the experiment non-functional. 
•    The experiment in question was invalid in many other respects. You can obtain detailed information about this here.

All of the preconditions listed above have to be fully met in order for a single protein to form. And the probability of all these conditions being met and giving rise
to a single protein is ONE IN 10950.


1. Walter T. Brown, In the Beginning (1989), p. 8

2009-09-07 19:38:17

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